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    Being an expert at something really pays off. Just how good are top performers compared to everybody else? Research shows in high complexityjobs like professional and sales roles, the top 10 percent produce 80 percent more than average and 700 percent more than the bottom 10 percent. But as I'm sure you're aware, becoming the best ain'teasy. As Bobby Knight once said, "Everybody has the will to win; few people have the will to prepare to win."

    想要成为某方面的专家,那确实需要花费一番功夫。要比别人好多少才能称的上专家?一组数据来告诉你,在调查了不同行业的专家到销售人员,位于该行业顶尖的10%贡献了80%的行业成果,是该行业底层10%贡献的7倍还多。但你们也一定清楚,想要做到最好并不容易,就像Bobby Knight (著名篮球教练)所说:“每个都渴望成功,但只有少数人会为此做出准备。”

    And one of the reasons why it's hard to become great is because a lot of what you've been told about how to learn, study, or train is wrong, wrong, and dead wrong. So it's time to learn how to get better at gettin' better. Whether you want to be a great public speaker, study for exams, or improve your free throws, we're going to learn what methods research and experts recommend for becoming an expert at anything.


    The #1 Predictor of expertise专业度预测

    I'm going to ask you one question. And this question will probably predict just how good you'll end up being at whatever it is you're passionate about. Ready?" How long are you going to be doing this?" Yeah, doing something for a long time probably correlates with being decent at it but that's not the point. Committing in advance to being in it for the long haul made all the difference. Even when practicing the same amount, those who made a long-term commitment did 400 percent better than the short-termers.问你个问题,来判断你感兴趣事情将会取得专业程度。“为了达到专业你能坚持多久?”能够长时间坚持做一件事,说明你非常适合做这件事,但这并不是重点。如果你以一个长期目标为导向,则会让你更上一层楼。

    From The Talent Code:With the same amount of practice, the long-term-commitment group outperformedthe short-term-commitment group by 400 percent. The long-term-commitment group, with a mere twenty minutes of weekly practice, progressed faster than the short-termers who practiced for an hour and a half. When long-term commitment combined with high levels of practice, skills skyrocketed.


    The #2 Find a mentor找一个导师

    Luke had Yoda. The Karate Kid had Mr. Miyagi. I'm sure Kung Fu Panda had somebody but I never saw that movie. You get the picture. When I spoke to Anders Ericsson, the professor who did the research behind the "10,000 hour rule" he said mentors were vital. But you knew that already. So what does the research show about mentors that most people get wrong? Merely finding someone to help you that is already an expert doesn't cut it.

    就像星际大战中的卢克有绝地大师,龙威小子有宫城先生,功夫熊猫也有个师傅,虽然我没有看过电影。但是我想你明白了有个导师重要性。曾为“一万个小时理论”作调研的Aders Ericsson,说有个导师对于成功是非常重要的。你们很多人都知道,也有导师,为什么最后的结果还是不理想,因为很多人都没有选对人。

    When I spoke to Shane Snow, author of Smartcuts, he said your mentor needs to care about you. Here's Shane: In great mentorship relationships the mentor doesn't just care about the thing that you're learning, they care about how your life goes. They are with you for the long haul. They are willing to say, "No," and to tell you what you're doing is wrong. Those kinds of relationships yield outsized results in terms of future salaries and happiness.


    The #3 Start with what's important先学关键的内容

    David Epstein put it simply: "The hallmark of expertise is figuring out what information is important." There are many components to any skill but practicing them all doesn't produce the same results. When I spoke to Tim Ferriss, bestselling author of The 4-Hour Workweek he said: Do an 80-20 analysis and ask yourself, "Which 20 percent of these things I need to learn will get me 80 percent of the results that I want?"

    评判一个专家的标准就是对于重要信息判断的准确性。技能的训练有不同的方法,但达到的效果未必相同。畅销书《The 4-Hour Workweek》的作者Tim认为:二八原则可以帮助你分析,要学习哪20%来达到80%的效果?

    When Tim was learning chess from champion Josh Waitzkin (whose life was the basis for the film Searching for Bobby Fischer) they did things the opposite from how most chess instruction works. They didn't start with the beginning of a chess game. They jumped straight to key moves that are applicable to the majority of interactions on the board. This allowed Tim to hang with top players after only a few days of practice.

    他师从Josh Waitzkin(基本是电影“王者之旅”的现实版)学习国际象棋,不同于先打基本功,而是在棋谱上学习足以招架大部分进攻的招式。短短几天Tim就可以和高手对弈了。

    The #4 "Train like you fight" 把每一次训练都当成实战

    When I spoke to Special Forces Lieutenant Colonel Mike Kenny he told me, "Train like you fight." You want your practice to be as similar to the real thing as possible. And research backs Mike up. Not only will you be better prepared, but you learn much better when the context you practice in matches the context you will eventually perform in. How strong is this effect? Insanely strong.

    当我和特种部队上尉Mike Kenny取经时,他说秘诀是“把每一次训练都当成实战”。研究结果支持他的说法,你需要的不仅仅是充分的准备,只有自己带入真实的情境来训练才能最终取得成绩。那要多真实?越真实越好。

    The #5 Use "desirable difficulty"运用“适当增加难度”来复习

    Reviewing material is one of the most popular forms of learning. Guess what? It's also one of the least effective. Researchers call this "the fluency illusion." Just because it's easy to remember right now doesn't mean it will stay that way. "Desirable difficulty" means that the harder you work trying to retrieve something from memory, the better you learn. Don't merely reread stuff. Practice like a medical student and quiz yourself with flashcards. You're not going to learn much passively. Research show re-reading material four times was not nearly as effective as reading it once and writing a summary.


    You need to struggle. Whether it's memorizing information or practicing a sport or skill, you want your practice to be challenging. When I spoke to Dan Coyle, bestselling author of The Talent Code, he said: We learn when we're in our discomfort zone. When you're struggling, that's when you're getting smarter. The more time you spend there, the faster you learn. It's better to spend a very, very high quality ten minutes, or even 10 seconds, than it is to spend a mediocre hour.你得受点挫折,不管是在记忆方面或是锻炼某项运动或其他技能。要尽量做些有挑战性的任务。就像《一万个小时天才》的作者Dan Colye所说,在我们舒适区以外,我们最能学到东西。就是俗话说的“吃一堑,长一智”,花越多的时间钻研,你就会学习得越快。聚精会神的十分钟,哪怕是10秒钟,比一个小时的磨洋工要有效率的多。

    #6 The Get fast, negative feedback快速从失败中吸取经验

    One of the three key components to "10,000 hours of deliberate practice" is feedback. Without it you don't know if you're improving or what you need to work on next. And don't just listen to me because I read the nerdy research. The most un-nerdy people in the world are on the same page. When I spoke to Navy SEAL platoon commander James Waters, he said feedback is critical.关于“一万小时刻意训练”三个要素的其中之一就是反馈。如果没有反馈那么你就不知道自己哪里需要提高,下一步的训练计划要怎么制定。也不必只听我的一家之言,事实上,那些取得成绩的人都知道反馈的重要性。比如海军海豹突击队指挥官James Water就认同反馈的重要性。

    After every mission, SEALs do a review of what happened to get feedback. Do they all just congratulate each other? No, they spend 90 percent of their time on the negative: what they can do better next time. And there's another vital source of feedback: yourself. Always take some time to reflect on how you're doing.


    The #7 Study less. Test more.少学多练

    Get your nose out of that book. Avoid the classroom. Whatever it is you want to be the best at, be doing it. Here's Dan Coyle:Our brains evolved to learn by doing things, not by hearing about them. This is one of the reasons that, for a lot of skills, it's much better to spend about two thirds of your time testing yourself on it rather than absorbing it. There's a rule of two thirds. If you want to, say, memorize a passage, it's better to spend 30 percent of your time reading it, and the other 70 percent of your time testing yourself on that knowledge.

    不要死盯着书本,也不要去教室。做你任何想做且能做好的事情。Dan Colye (《一万个小时天才理论》作者)认为,我们大脑通过练习来学习,而不仅仅是靠听,大部分技能,要花三分之二的时间来练习,不仅仅是单纯的学习。这就是三分之二规律。比如说,你要记忆一片文章,花30%的时间来读,70%的时间来测试你是否记得里面的内容。

    The #8 Naps are steroids for your brain小睡更有助于大脑活跃

    If you're not getting enough sleep, you're not learning as well as you could be. In fact, research shows there is a correlation between student grades and average amount of sleep.


    Via NurtureShock: Teens who received As averaged about 15 more minutes sleep than the B students, who in turn averaged 15 more minutes than the C's, and so on. Wahlstrom's data was an almost perfect replication of results from an earlier study of over 3,000 Rhode Island high schoolers by Brown's Carskadon. Certainly, these are averages, but the consistency of the two studies stands out. Every 15 minutes counts.Too busy to get eight hours? I hear you. Naps to the rescue!


    Sum up 总结

    Here's how to be an expert at anything:


    1. Be in it for the long haul.


    2. Find a mentor.


    3. Start with what's important.


    4. "Train like you fight."


    5. Use "desirable difficulty."


    6. Get fast, negative feedback.


    7. Study less. Test more.


    8. Naps are steroids for your brain.


    So you do all eight things and practice your tush off and now you're The Master. Know what else you are?




    When you're good at something and you do it often, the result isn't just promotions or more wins on the tennis court, you also smile more often. People who deliberately exercise their "signature strengths" —talents that set them apart from others —on a daily basis became significantly happier for months. It's not lonely at the top. It's happy.



    Author:    Source:qq.com    Editor:Yang Fan

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